The Ancient Period
Brass production tools were invented in this period. This marked the beginning of metallurgy. Its direct offspring was the Bronze Age. Metallurgy at this period involved cold forging and casting. Generally, small tools were produced. But stone artefacts still were the main production tools. Agriculture and stock raising were more successful and there was a food surplus. In conjunction with this significant changes occurred in human society. Class division, walled cities, fine jades and altars appeared. All these prove that human society had developed from a clan society into that of a tribe, tribe union or even state. In China, the Chalcolithic Age commemced about 3000 B.C. and ended in 2000 B.C. Qijia Culture, Longshan Culture and Liangzhu Culture were the famous cultures of this age. Qijia Culture not only had small tools like pricks, knives and chisels, they also had bronze mirrors.